How over 400 British species have become extinct over the past 200 years

Disappearing: More than a quarter of Britain's native mammals are under threat, experts say, with the wildcat and greater mouse-eared bat the most at-risk. The beaver, grey long-eared bat and red squirrel (pictured) are also endangered


Britain has lost almost half of its biodiversity since the Industrial Revolution and more than 400 species over the last 200 years.

Worse still, that is just the beginning. A further 1,188 could follow over the next century unless rapid action is taken to reverse the impact of humanity and man-made climate change.

Of the 8,431 species in Great Britain that have been assessed by conservationists, 13 per cent have been classified as threatened with extinction.

That includes 440 plants (18 per cent), 232 fungi and lichens (15 per cent), 111 vertebrates (40 per cent) and 405 invertebrates (12 per cent). 

Since 1970 alone, 133 species have been lost, from ants, bees, beetles, butterflies and dragonflies, to fish, fleas, fungi, mammals, moths, shrimps, spiders and wasps. 

Experts now say more than a quarter of the UK’s 107 species of mammal are at risk of extinction, while 68 of the fish species found in Britain are on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN) red list.

At least one in seven reptile species in Britain is also threatened with extinction or has recently become extinct.

Birds are not safe either. A massive 43 per cent of the country’s birds are at risk of extinction, according to the National Biodiversity Network.

Not only that, but the British Trust for Ornithology’s latest report – Birds of Conservation Concern 5 – has placed more species onto its red list than ever before.

MailOnline has put together a list of some of Britain’s wildlife that has been lost over the past 200 years – including 421 in England – as well as animals and birds that are at risk of going extinct over the next two centuries without better conservation.

Mammals

There are 107 species of mammal in the UK, according to a charity called The Mammal Society, of which 47 are terrestrial and native to Britain.

More than a quarter of these (26 per cent) are under threat, experts say, with the wildcat and greater mouse-eared bat the most at-risk.

The beaver, grey long-eared bat, red squirrel, and water vole are also all endangered, while the hedgehog, hazel dormouse, Orkney vole, Serotine bat and Barbastelle bat are deemed vulnerable.

Hedgehogs, in particular, have experienced a harsh decline over the last 70 years. In 1950 there were an estimated 36 million in the UK, but this had dropped to just one million in 2013 — a third of levels at the start of the century. 

Disappearing: More than a quarter of Britain's native mammals are under threat, experts say, with the wildcat and greater mouse-eared bat the most at-risk. The beaver, grey long-eared bat and red squirrel (pictured) are also endangered

Disappearing: More than a quarter of Britain’s native mammals are under threat, experts say, with the wildcat and greater mouse-eared bat the most at-risk. The beaver, grey long-eared bat and red squirrel (pictured) are also endangered

Water voles (pictured) are also endangered, while the hedgehog, hazel dormouse and Orkney vole are deemed vulnerable

Water voles (pictured) are also endangered, while the hedgehog, hazel dormouse and Orkney vole are deemed vulnerable

There are even fears for the likes of mountain hares, the harvest mouse and the lesser white-toothed shrew, all of which could soon come under threat without action.

Meanwhile, the red squirrel has been in decline since the early 20th century and has dwindled to an estimated population of only 140,000. It is now only commonly found in the far north of England and Scotland.

These numbers compare to the 2.5 million-strong North American grey squirrels that exist in Britain following the species’ introduction to the UK. 

Marine mammals such as sperm whales, bottlenose dolphins and the sei whale are also on the first official Red List for British Mammals.

Produced by the Mammal Society for Natural England, Natural Resources Wales, Scottish Natural Heritage and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee, it shows that 11 of the 47 mammals native to Britain are classified as being at imminent risk of extinction. 

The Serotine bat and Barbastelle bat (pictured) are also classified as vulnerable in the UK. There are even fears for the likes of mountain hares, the harvest mouse and the lesser white-toothed shrew, which could all come under threat without action

The Serotine bat and Barbastelle bat (pictured) are also classified as vulnerable in the UK. There are even fears for the likes of mountain hares, the harvest mouse and the lesser white-toothed shrew, which could all come under threat without action

Hedgehogs in particular have experienced a harsh decline over the last 70 years. In 1950 there were an estimated 36 million in the UK, but this had dropped to just one million in 2013 ¿ a third of levels at the start of the century

Hedgehogs in particular have experienced a harsh decline over the last 70 years. In 1950 there were an estimated 36 million in the UK, but this had dropped to just one million in 2013 — a third of levels at the start of the century

A further five species are classified as ‘near threatened’ — meaning there is a realistic possibility of them becoming threatened with extinction in the near future.

Professor Fiona Mathews, of the Mammal Society and University of Sussex, led the report. She said: ‘While we bemoan the demise of wildlife in other parts of the world, here in Britain we are managing to send even rodents towards extinction. 

‘Things have to change rapidly if we want our children and grandchildren to enjoy the wildlife we take for granted.’

Why are these mammals at risk?

Humans are a big part of the problem. Although there are many reasons for the decline of mammals across Britain, man-made pollution is one of the key causes.

Species such as bats and the hazel dormouse have also been deprived of their habitats by people building on natural lands, while others have been hunted by humans for centuries.

The water vole, red squirrel and Orkney vole suffer from the combined effects of habitat degradation and the introduction of non-native species.

Dominic Price, director of The Species Recovery Trust, told MailOnline: ‘The main reasons are habitat loss (leaving populations fragmented and with far less space to live in) and climate change, which is happening too fast for species to adapt to.’ 

Lisa Chilton, chief executive of the National Biodiversity Network Trust, added: ‘We’re in the midst of a nature emergency, and it’s every bit as damaging as the climate crisis. 

‘In fact, they’re two sides of the same coin — you can’t fix the climate crisis without solving the nature emergency, and vice versa. We need to tackle these life-threatening emergencies hand in hand, with equal priority.’

She told MailOnline the UK’s wildlife had been ‘in worrying decline for decades’. 

‘It’s down to a combination of many, many factors — from urban growth and unsustainable farming practices, to overfishing and pollution,’ Ms Chilton said.

‘For some species, climate change could be the last straw. Arguably the biggest threat, though, is simply that we don’t value wildlife enough. 

‘If we truly understood and appreciated all that nature does for us, as a society we’d make better decisions about looking after it. 

‘So this is also a “nature-connectedness” emergency. We urgently need to rediscover the joy, inspiration and wonder that nature brings, and place a higher value on everything that it provides for us, for the future of people and the planet.’

WHICH MAMMALS HAVE BEEN LOST FROM BRITAIN? 

Species: Eubalaena glacialis (Northern right whale)

Extinct: mid-1800s

Factors leading to extinction: A decline in its food source

 

 

Species: Felis silvestris (Wildcat)

Extinct: late-1800s in England and Wales, while currently at brink of extinction in Scotland

Factors leading to extinction: Hunting and habitat loss

 

 

Species: Myotis myotis (Greater mouse-eared bat)

Extinct: 1985

Factors leading to extinction: Unknown, although there are no records of this species until the 1950s so it could have been a failed colonisation

 

 

Species: European wolf 

Extinct: 1760

Factors leading to extinction: A combination of deforestation and hunting 

 

                                                                                                                                                                             Source: The Species Recovery Trust 

What could go next?

Critically endangered

  • Wildcat
  • Greater mouse-eared bat

 

Vulnerable

  • Hedgehog
  • Hazel dormouse
  • Orkney Vole
  • Serotine bat
  • Barbastelle bat

Endangered

  • Beaver
  • Red squirrel 
  • Water vole 
  • Grey long-eared bat

Near threatened

  • Mountain hare
  • Harvest mouse
  • Lesser white-toothed shrew 
  • Leisler’s bat
  • Nathusius’ pipistrelle 

Source: Mammal Society

Birds 

It may seem hard to believe but almost half (43 per cent) of birds in Britain are at risk of extinction.

Not only that, but a report by the British Trust for Ornithology also saw more species placed onto its red list than ever before.

It now includes 67 species – 15 more than in the last report, which came out just six years earlier – with the Atlantic puffin, whimbrel and turtle dove among them.

The latter has nosedived by a massive 97 per cent in numbers since 1970. Such has been the speed of this decline that the bird is now on the Global Red List for Endangered Species.

Seven species of breeding birds have been lost to extinction over the past 200 years, including three in the last 25 years alone.

‘We’ve lost several species of birds and mammals over the past few centuries,’ David Noble, the principal ecologist for the British Trust for Ornithology, told MailOnline.

‘Some like oriole were always quite rare in Britain but the once common and widespread wryneck is gone and the iconic turtle dove, one of the UK’s most rapidly declining species, seems on its way out.’ 

At risk: A report by the British Trust for Ornithology saw more species placed onto its red list than ever before. It now includes 67 species ¿ 15 more than in the last report, which came out just six years earlier ¿ with the turtle dove (pictured) among them

At risk: A report by the British Trust for Ornithology saw more species placed onto its red list than ever before. It now includes 67 species – 15 more than in the last report, which came out just six years earlier – with the turtle dove (pictured) among them

Concern: The Atlantic puffin (pictured) and whimbrel have also been added to the British Trust for Ornithology's red list

Concern: The Atlantic puffin (pictured) and whimbrel have also been added to the British Trust for Ornithology’s red list

See also  After Tesla CEO Elon Musk alleged 'unrelenting investigation,' SEC pushes back

WHICH BIRDS HAVE BEEN LOST FROM BRITAIN?

Species: Charadrius alexandrines (Kentish plover)

Extinct: 1928

Factors leading to extinction: Human disturbance

 

Species: Chlidonias niger (Black tern)

Extinct: 1840s-1850s

Factors leading to extinction: Loss of wetlands   

 

Species: Lanius collurio (Red-backed shrike)

Extinct: 1988

Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss, agricultural intensification and egg collecting

 

Species: Pinguinus impennis (Great auk)

Extinct: 1820s

Factors leading to extinction: Hunting

Species: Ciconia ciconia (White stork)

Extinct: Unknown

Factors leading to extinction: No clear understanding 

 

Species: Crex crex (Corncrake)

Extinct: Early 1990s

Factors leading to extinction: The mechanisation of mowing and the earlier mowing of grass crops

Species: Otis tarda (Great bustard)

Extinct: 1833

Factors leading to extinction: Expansion and intensification of agriculture

                                                                                                                                                                              Source: The Species Recovery Trust

What could go next?  

  • Grey partridge
  • Lapwing
  • Grasshopper warbler
  • Ptarmigan
  • Whimbrel
  • House martin
  • Capercaillie
  • Curlew
  • Wood warbler
  • Black grouse
  • Black-tailed godwit
  • Starling
  • Bewick’s swan
  • Ruff
  • Mistle thrush
  • White-fronted goose
  • Dunlin
  • Cuckoo 
  • Merlin 
  • Linnet 
  • Balearic shearwater 
  • Shag 
  • Fieldfare
  • Long-tailed duck 
  • Purple sandpiper 
  • Ring ouzel 
  • Velvet scoter 
  • Woodcock 
  • Spotted flycatcher 
  • Common scoter 
  • Red-necked phalarope 
  • Nightingale
  • Goldeneye 
  • Kittiwake 
  • Whinchat 
  • Smew 
  • Herring gull 
  • House sparrow 
  • Tree pipit
  • Corncrake 
  • Red-backed shrike 
  • Redpoll 
  • Willow tit 
  • Skylark Yellowhammer 
  • Pochard
  • Roseate tern 
  • Tree sparrow 
  • Scaup 
  • Arctic skua
  • Red-necked grebe
  • Puffin
  • Yellow wagtail
  • Slavonian grebe 
  • Hen harrier 
  • Hawfinch
  • Turtle dove 
  • Montagu’s harrier
  • Greenfinch 
  • Swift 
  • Lesser spotted woodpecker 
  • Twite 
  • Leach’s storm-petrel 
  • Marsh tit 
  • Corn bunting 
  • Cirl bunting 

Source: The Birds of Conservation Concern 5 Red list

Fish

Only one species of fish has become extinct in Britain in the last 200 years and that is the burbot.

It once thrived at the bottom of cool lowland rivers across eastern England but was last seen in Britain in 1969.

Climate change, pollution and historical overfishing have all been blamed for this — while also putting a number of other types of fish around the UK at risk of extinction.

In fact, 68 species are on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature’s red list.

Not a looker: Only one species of fish has become extinct in Britain in the last 200 years and that is the burbot (pictured)

Not a looker: Only one species of fish has become extinct in Britain in the last 200 years and that is the burbot (pictured)

These include the Atlantic halibut, European eel and Atlantic bluefin tuna.

Multiple sharks, such as the angel, thresher, and smooth hammerhead, are also under threat, while salmon has suffered significant declines since the 1960s. 

Once widespread in UK rivers, even European sturgeon are now critically endangered because of river dams, fishing and pollutions.

‘Acidification, caused by the uptake of CO2, has reduced the pH of waters around Europe, apparently more rapidly so in UK waters than in the North Atlantic as a whole,’ according to a major report called the State of Nature, published in 2019.

‘This has the potential to adversely affect organisms that require calcium carbonate. Acidification is also of particular concern as it could further reduce the rate at which CO2 is absorbed from the atmosphere, thus aggravating climate change.’  

Multiple studies have shown that acidification stops fish reproducing and can also be deadly.

Sixty eight species are on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature's red list. These include the Atlantic halibut, European eel and Atlantic bluefin tuna (pictured)

Sixty eight species are on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature’s red list. These include the Atlantic halibut, European eel and Atlantic bluefin tuna (pictured)

Multiple sharks, such as the angel (pictured), thresher, and smooth hammerhead, are also under threat, while salmon has suffered significant declines since the 1960s

Multiple sharks, such as the angel (pictured), thresher, and smooth hammerhead, are also under threat, while salmon has suffered significant declines since the 1960s

‘CLIMATE CHANGE, WETLAND LOSS AND LAND USE CHANGE ARE MAINLY TO BLAME FOR DYING SPECIES’ 

David Noble, the principal ecologist for the British Trust for Ornithology, told MailOnline that the ‘main pressure driving species towards extinction in Britain over the last 50 years is land use change and especially the intensive management of agricultural land which covers 75 per cent of the country.’

He added: ‘To fight against that, we need to encourage and also help support farmers and other land-owners in implementing environmentally friendly farming practices. 

‘This means providing semi-natural areas, hedges, field margins, sources of water, reducing pesticide and fertiliser use, and implementing more wildlife friendly mowing and sowing practices. Agri-environment schemes are one way of doing this, some farmers do it on their own initiative but basically we need more land managed in this way and where necessary to direct resources to land-owners that are providing us all with habitats and nature that sustain us all.

Other key pressures include (i) climate change (currently having positive and negative impact on different species), (ii) loss of wetlands and over-abstraction of water, (iii) loss of traditional forestry practices leading to wildlife impoverished mono-cultures, (iv) urbanisation and (v) loss of heathlands and grasslands which support specialised species. 

‘In general, we need to protect and maintain the quality of these special landscapes (ponds, semi-natural grasslands, heathlands) and inject as much habitat diversity into our farmland, woodland and urban areas as possible. Climate change of course requires a global effort.

‘We’ve lost several species of birds and mammals over the past few centuries. Some like oriole were always quite rare in Britain but the once common and widespread wryneck is gone and the iconic turtle dove, one of the UK’s most rapidly declining species, seems on its way out.’ 

It is not just the UK’s seas that are putting fish at risk, either. Every river in Britain falls short of European Union standards on chemical pollution.

This is mostly due to agricultural pollution such as nitrates and phosphorous, physical modifications to waterbodies, such as dams, and sewage. 

Dave Tickner, chief adviser on freshwater at WWF, said: ‘Nature is in freefall and the UK is no exception: wildlife struggles to survive, let alone thrive, in our polluted waters.’ 

What could go next? 

  • Atlantic halibut
  • European eel 
  • Atlantic bluefin tuna
  • Angel shark
  • Thresher shark
  • Smooth hammerhead

Source: WWF 

Amphibians and Reptiles

When it comes to amphibians and reptiles, Britain actually fares a lot better than the rest of the world.

Half of amphibians globally are currently at risk, but in the UK all seven native species are deemed to be of ‘least concern’, according to the International Union for the Conservation of Nature.

The main loss is the natterjack toad, which is one of only two species of toad in Britain.

In the UK all seven native species are deemed to be of 'least concern', according to the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. The main loss is the natterjack toad (pictured), which is one of only two species of toad in Britain

In the UK all seven native species are deemed to be of ‘least concern’, according to the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. The main loss is the natterjack toad (pictured), which is one of only two species of toad in Britain

With reptiles, none of the 1,439 at-risk species worldwide are native to the UK. Some, like the leatherback sea turtle (pictured), find their way to Britain but the six types that live exclusively here are considered 'least concern'

With reptiles, none of the 1,439 at-risk species worldwide are native to the UK. Some, like the leatherback sea turtle (pictured), find their way to Britain but the six types that live exclusively here are considered ‘least concern’

However, it now only exists in small areas of Norfolk and Lincolnshire, as well as the western coast from Lancashire to Dumfries. 

Female natterjacks are actually able to lay up to 7,500 eggs during breeding season, but despite this the species is still considered endangered here.

With reptiles, none of the 1,439 at-risk species worldwide are native to the UK. Some, like the leatherback sea turtle, find their way to Britain but the six types that live exclusively here are considered ‘least concern’.

These include the grass snake, common European adder, smooth snake, common lizard, sand lizard, and slow worm.

What could go next?

Invertebrates

Thousands of invertebrates call Britain home, from insects such as ants and spiders to bees, praying mantises and moths, as well as crustaceans like crabs, shrimps and lobsters.

At total of 405 invertebrate species (12 per cent of the overall number) are currently at risk of extinction in the UK.

Among them are cicada, which are common throughout Europe but struggling here — with no recorded sightings of the bug in more than 20 years.

The wart-biter cricket is also at a high-risk of extinction because of the loss of its habitat on heathland and chalk landscape, as well as its prey. It can only now be found in four locations across East Sussex, Dorset and Wiltshire.

At total of 405 invertebrate species (12 per cent of the overall number) are currently at risk of extinction in the UK. Among them are cicada (pictured), which are common throughout Europe but struggling here ¿ with no recorded sightings of the bug in more than 20 years

At total of 405 invertebrate species (12 per cent of the overall number) are currently at risk of extinction in the UK. Among them are cicada (pictured), which are common throughout Europe but struggling here — with no recorded sightings of the bug in more than 20 years

Both the cosnard’s net-winged beetle and the bearded false darkling beetle are also at risk of disappearing from Britain, along with the v-moth.

This insect is still present across the UK but its population is believed to be less than 1 per cent of its 1960s levels.

Half of the country’s species of butterfly are also now at risk of extinction. A red list published in May this year named 29 at-risk butterfly species out of the 58 currently living in Britain.

Eight species were added to the list since the last assessment in 2010, including the Scotch Argus and Swallowtail, which are both listed as ‘vulnerable’.

Of the 29, eight of the species are categorised as ‘endangered’, 16 as ‘vulnerable’, and five as ‘near threatened’. 

See also  James Webb image captures clearest view of Neptune's rings in 30 years

A species that has particularly suffered is the small tortoiseshell (pictured). It was once one of our most common butterfly species, but in 2013 experts revealed its numbers had dropped by 77 per cent in a decade

A species that has particularly suffered is the small tortoiseshell (pictured). It was once one of our most common butterfly species, but in 2013 experts revealed its numbers had dropped by 77 per cent in a decade

Half of the country's species of butterfly are also now at risk of extinction. A red list published in May this year named 29 at-risk butterfly species out of the 58 currently living in Britain, including the Scotch Argus and Swallowtail (pictured)

Half of the country’s species of butterfly are also now at risk of extinction. A red list published in May this year named 29 at-risk butterfly species out of the 58 currently living in Britain, including the Scotch Argus and Swallowtail (pictured)

This represents a 26 per cent increase in the number of at-risk species, according to wildlife charity Butterfly Conservation, which compiled the list. 

A species that has particularly suffered is the small tortoiseshell. It was once one of our most common butterfly species, but in 2013 experts revealed its numbers had dropped by 77 per cent in a decade.

In Victorian times the large tortoiseshell butterfly was widespread in southern England, but it became extinct in 1953 due to Dutch elm disease, which eradicated the main larval food source.

The black-backed meadow ant, meanwhile, became extinct in 1988 due to urban development and inappropriate land management.

What could go next?

  • Cicada
  • Wart-biter cricket
  • Scotch Argus butterfly
  • Swallowtail butterfly 
  • Cosnard’s net-winged beetle
  • Bearded false darkling beetle
  • V-moth 
  • Small tortoiseshell butterfly

Fungi, lichens and plants 
Seventy species of fungus have become extinct in England in the last 200 years, while many more are still being threatened by habitat loss and pollution.

A total of 232 fungi and lichens (15 per cent) are currently classified as being at risk across Britain, along with 440 types of plants (18 per cent of those seen in the UK). 

The Gomphus clavatus or pig’s ear fungus became extinct in 1927 due to habitat loss and degradation, while Cladonia peziziformis disappeared in 1968 due to human disturbance, inappropriate use of burning for land management, the natural succession of heathland vegetation and high grazing levels.

Gone: The Gomphus clavatus or pig's ear fungus (pictured) became extinct in 1927 due to habitat loss and degradation

Gone: The Gomphus clavatus or pig’s ear fungus (pictured) became extinct in 1927 due to habitat loss and degradation

The plant Davall’s Sedge was once found at a site in Somerset, but in the 19th Century it was drained for development and has never again been seen in this country.

Meanwhile, Ivell’s Sea Anemone, which was only ever found in England, has become globally extinct following changes in water quality at its one known site.

Professor Richard Gregory, head of monitoring conservation science at the RSPB, said: ‘Prior to 1970, the UK’s wildlife had already been depleted by centuries of persecution, pollution, habitat loss and degradation. 

‘But there is no let-up in the net loss of nature, with data showing that 41 per cent of species have declined since 1970. 

‘The biggest threats to nature now includes significant and ongoing changes in the way we manage our land for agriculture, the ongoing effects of climate change and pollution.’

He added: ‘Whilst the data that the State of Nature report shows are alarming there is also cause for some cautious hope. 

‘Many exciting new conservation initiatives with partnerships are delivering inspiring results for some of the UK’s nature. Species such as Bitterns and Large Blue Butterfly have been saved through the concerted efforts of organisations and individuals.’

What could go next? 

  • Ghost orchid
  • Wood calamint
  • Crested cow-wheat
  • Red helleborine
  • Smut fungus
  • Urocystis primulicola
  • Primula farinosa
  • Puccinia libanotidis 

Source: Woodlant Trust 

DIED OUT: THE FULL LIST OF 421 SPECIES THAT HAVE DISAPPEARED FROM ENGLAND

Group Species Common name Year extinct
Ants Ants Formica pratensis  Black-backed meadow ant 1988
Bees Bees Andrena lepida 1952
Bees Bees Andrena loricola  1939
Bees Andrena nana  1930
Bees Andrena nanula  1877
Bees Andrena polita  1934
Bees Andrena tridentate 1944
Bees Andrena vaga  1946
Bees Bombus cullumanus  Cullem’s bumblebee 1941
Bees Bombus distinguendus   Great yellow bumblebee 1981
Bees Bombus pomorum Apple bumblebee 1864
Bees Bombus subterraneus Short-haired bumblebee 1990
Bees Chalicodoma (Megachile) ericetorum  1844
Bees Coelioxys afra  1892
Bees Dufourea halictula  1953
Bees Eucera nigrescens 1970
Bees Halictus maculates  1930
Bees Halictus subauratus  1850s
Bees Hylaeus punctulatissima 1840
Bees Megachile lapponica   1847
Bees Melecta luctuosa  1912
Bees Nomada errans 1982
Bees Osmia xanthomelana  1998
Bees Rhophites quinquespinosus    1878
Beetles Beetles Aglyptinus agathidioides  1912
Beetles Beetles Agonum sahlbergi 1914
Beetles Ampedus sanguineus  1830
Beetles Anthrenus pimpinellae 1895
Beetles Anthrenus scrophulariae  1800s
Beetles Apalus muralis  c1969
Beetles Apion brunnipes 1937
Beetles Bagous arduus (longitarsis)  1800s
Beetles Bagous binodulus  1861
Beetles Bagous diglyptus  1897
Beetles Bagous petro 1895
Beetles Bidessus minutissimus  Minutest diving beetle 1908
Beetles Bostrichus capucinus 1908
Beetles Bothynoderes (Chromoderus) afinis  1883
Beetles Cardiophorus gramineus  1863
Beetles Cardiophorus ruficollis  1833
Beetles Ceutorhynchus hepaticus 1909
Beetles Ceutorhynchus syrites  1800s
Beetles Chrysomela tremula 1958
Beetles Clytra laeviuscula  1895
Beetles Coniocleonus hollbergi  1815
Beetles Cryptocephalus exiguus      Pashford pot beetle 1986
Beetles Cryptocephalus violaceus  1864
Beetles Ebaeus pedicularius       1800s
Beetles Endophloeus markovichianus 1927
Beetles Hister illigeri  1800s     
Beetles Hister quadrinotatus      1800s 
Beetles Hypera arundinis  1800s
Beetles Hypocassida subferruginea      1800s 
Beetles Hypocoprus latridioides       1902
Beetles Lamia textor 1953
Beetles Lamprohiza splendidula 1884
Beetles Leiodes triepkii nec pallens  1933
Beetles Lepturobosca virens  1800s
Beetles Lepyrus capucinus 1897
Beetles Lixus angustatus nec algirus  1928
Beetles Lixus paraplecticus  1958
Beetles Lixus vilis  1905
Beetles Meligethes coracinus  1870s
Beetles Meligethes corvinus  1873
Beetles Meloe autumnalis  1952
Beetles Meloe cicatricosus  1906
Beetles Meloe mediterraneus  1800s
Beetles Meloe variegatus  1882
Beetles Murmidius ovalis  1831
Beetles Mycterus curculioides  1882
Beetles Nephus bisignatus  1800s
Beetles Obrium cantharinum  1929
Beetles Onthophagus nutans 1926
Beetles Paederus rubrothoracicus 1870
Beetles Philonthus confinis  1902
Beetles Plagionotus arcuatus  1800s
Beetles Platycerus caraboides  Blue stag beetle 1839
Beetles Pleurophorus caesus  1890
Beetles Polyphylla fullo  mid-1800s
Beetles Pterostichus aterrimus  1973
Beetles Rhynchites auratus  1839
Beetles Rhynchites bacchus  1843
Beetles Rhyncolus (Phloeophagus) gracilis  1897
Beetles Rhyssemus germanus  1800s
Beetles Selatosomus cruciatus 1840
Beetles Strangalia attenuate  1845
Beetles Tarsostenus univittatus  1800s
Beetles Tilloidea unifasciatus 1877
Beetles Trichodes alvearius  1800s
Beetles Trichodes apiarius 1830
Beetles Tychius polylineatus  1909
Birds Birds Charadrius alexandrines   Kentish plover 1928
Birds Chlidonias niger Black tern 1840s-1850s
Birds Crex crex   Corncrake early-1990s
Birds Jynx torquilla  Wryneck 1970s
Birds Lanius collurio   Red-backed shrike 1988
Birds Otis tarda Great bustard 1833
Birds Pinguinus impennis  Great auk  1820s
Butterflies Butterflies Aporia crataegi   Black-veined white 1890s/1920s
Butterflies Boloria dia Weaver’s fritillary c1890
Butterflies Carcharodus alceae  Mallow skipper c1925
Butterflies Carterocephalus palaemon  Chequered skipper 1976
Butterflies Euchloe simplonia Mountain dappled white
Butterflies Iphicles (Papilio) podalirius   Scarce swallowtail c1850
Butterflies Lycaena dispar  Large copper 1864
Butterflies Lycaena tityrus Sooty copper c1890
Butterflies Lycaena virgaureae Scarce copper 1860
Butterflies Nymphalis polychloros  Large tortoiseshell  c1953
Butterflies Parnassius apollo Apollo  c1850
Butterflies Pontia daplidice  Bath white 1900
Butterflies Pyrgus armoricanus Oberthur’s grizzled skipper c1860
Caddisflies Caddisflies Hydropsyche exocellata  1902
Caddisflies Orthotrichia tragetti 1915
Caddisflies Oxyethira distinctella  1919
Cnidarians Cnidarians Edwardsia ivelli  Ivell’s sea anemone 1983
Dragonflies Dragonflies Coenagrion armatum  Norfolk damselfly 1958
Dragonflies Coenagrion scitulum Dainty damselfly 1953
Dragonflies Oxygastra curtisii Orange-spotted emerald 1963
Earwigs Earwigs Labidura riparia  Tawny earwig c1930
Fish Fish Lota lota  Burbot mid-1900s
Fleas Fleas Megabothris rectangulatus  Vole flea 1912
Flies Flies Aenigmatias brevifrons 1913
Flies Belida angelicae  1936
Flies Centrophlebomyia furcata  1906
Flies Ceromya monstrosicornis 1940
Flies Chrysoscosmius auratus  1943
Flies Clitellaria ephippium  1850
Flies Crossopalpus setiger  1912
Flies Dasypogon diadema  1947
Flies Diaphorus winthemi 1946
Flies Dolichopus melanopus  1872
Flies Entomophaga exoleta  1949
Flies Eudorylas dissimilis  1965
Flies Eudorylas restrictus  1901
Flies Eudorylas ruralis 1901
Flies Eurysthaea scutellaris  1902
Flies Gasterophilus haemorrhoidalis 1917
Flies Hemerodromia melangyna  1913
Flies Hilara aeronetha  1930-33
Flies Hypoderma bovis  2000
Flies Hypoderma lineatum  2000
Flies Laphria gilva 1951
Flies Macrocera inverse 1923
Flies Macrocera propleuralis  1938
Flies Flies Neoitamus cothurnatus 1921
Flies Ochlerotatus communis  1922
Flies Ochlerotatus leucomelas  1919
Flies Ochlerotatus sticticus  1938
Flies Ochthera schembrii  1908
Flies Palaeodocosia alpicola   1923
Flies Peleteria rubescens  1931
Flies Phaonia gracilis   1943
Flies Phaonia scutellata  1898
Flies Phebellia stulta  1929
Flies Phora speighti  1918
Flies Phthiridium biarticulatum  c1966
Flies Platypalpus ochrocera  1911
Flies Poecilobothrus majesticus   1907
Flies Rhaphium pectinatum  1868
Flies Scatella fusca  1886
Flies Sciophila cliftoni  1800s
Flies Solva varium   1830
Flies Tachydromia halterata  1937
Flies Triphleba smithi  1934
Fungi Fungi Badhamia apiculospora
Fungi Badhamia dubia
Fungi Badhamia populina
Fungi Fungi Bauhinus marginalis  1921
Fungi Bauhinus pustulatus  1924
Fungi Bovistella radicata  Rooting puffball 1952
Fungi Clavariadelphus ligula  1953
Fungi Clavariadelphus truncatus  1924
Fungi Clavicorona pyxidata  Candelabra coral 1920
Fungi Cortinarius cumatilis  1868
Fungi Cribraria atrofusca
Fungi Diderma cingulatum
Fungi Didymium elegantissimum
Fungi Didymium macrospermum
Fungi Didymium sturgisii
Fungi Doassansia limosellae 1929
Fungi Elaeomyxa cerifera
Fungi Geoglossum peckianum  1910
Fungi Gomphus clavatus   Pig’s ear 1927
Fungi Gyromitra ambigua  1907
Fungi Gyromitra gigas  1916
Fungi Haradaea duriaeana  1902
Fungi Hemitrichia chrysospora
Fungi Hygrophorus erubescens  Blotched woodwax 1877
Fungi Hygrophorus russula  Pinkmottle woodwax 1903
Fungi Irpicodon pendulus 1831
Fungi Jamesdicksonia irregularis 1959
Fungi Lamproderma anglicum
Fungi Leptoporus mollis  1957
Fungi Lycoperdon decipiens  Steppe puffball 1923
Fungi Lycoperdon ericaeum  Heath puffball 1883
Fungi Melanotaenium cingens
Fungi Melanotaenium hypogaeum
Fungi Mycocalia duriaeana  Dune cannon 1953
Fungi Panellus ringens  1887
Fungi Perenniporia medulla-panis  1854
Fungi Phragmidium acuminatum  1879
Fungi Physarum carneum
Fungi Pithya vulgaris  1888
Fungi Plicariella radula  1853
Fungi Polystigma fulvum  1893
Fungi Poronia erici  1933
Fungi Pterula debilis 1946
Fungi Puccinia albulensis 1936
Fungi Puccinia asparagi  Asparagus rust 1936
Fungi Puccinia bulbocastani Great pignut rust 1956
Fungi Puccinia cicutae  1958
Fungi Puccinia cladii  1957
Fungi Puccinia longissima Crested hair-grass rust 1953
Fungi Puccinia pratensis   Meadow oat-grass rust 1959
Fungi Puccinia ribis  1947
Fungi Pycnoporus cinnabarinus  1913
Fungi Sarcodon leucopus
Fungi Sarcodon regalis Crowned tooth 1969
Fungi Schizonella melanogramma  1951
Fungi Stemonitopsis microspora
Fungi Tricholoma aurantium Orange knight 1957
Fungi Uredinopsis filicina  Beech fern rust 1936
Fungi Uredo oncidii  1932
Fungi Urocystis alopecuri  1946
Fungi Urocystis avenae-elatioris   1944
Fungi Uromyces colchici  1800s 
Fungi Uromyces tuberculatus 1944
Fungi Ustanciosporium gigantosporum   1865
Fungi Ustanciosporium majus   1939
Fungi Ustilago corcontica  1944
Fungi Ustilago marina  Spike rush smut 1885
Fungi Xylaria bulbosa 1911
Fungi Xylaria digitata  1924
Fungi Xylaria hippotrichoides  1875
Ground beetles Ground beetles Acupalpus elegans  1875
Ground beetles Harpalus cupreus  1914
Ground beetles Lebia marginata  1800s 
Ground beetles Lebia scapularis  1883
Heteropteran bugs Heteropteran bugs Chlorochroa juniperina   1925
Heteropteran bugs Elasmucha ferrugata 1950
Heteropteran bugs Eremocoris fenestratus  1962
Heteropteran bugs Eurygaster austriaca  1885
Heteropteran bugs Hadrodemus m-flavum   1800s
Heteropteran bugs Jalla dumosa  1800s 
Heteropteran bugs Prostemma guttula  1890
Lichens Lichens Arthonia galactities  1879
Lichens Arthothelium spectabile 1937
Lichens Biatora cuprea  1975
Lichens Biatoridium monasteriense  1981
Lichens Brigantiaea fuscolutea  1960
Lichens Bryoria nadvornikiana  1995
Lichens Buellia asterella  1992
Lichens Caloplaca atroflava  1973
Lichens Chaenothecopsis debilis  1846
Lichens Cladonia peziziformis 1968
Lichens Dictyonema interruptum  1959
Lichens Diplotomma pharcidium  1879
Lichens Lichens Lecania fuscella
Liverworts Liverworts Diplophyllum taxifolium  1950s
Liverworts Fossombronia mittenii  Mitten’s frillwort 1972
Liverworts Liochlaena lanceolata  Long-leaved flapwort 1966
Liverworts Scapania praetervisa  1952
Mammals Mammals Eubalaena glacialis  Northern right whale mid-1800s 
Mammals Felis silvestris  Wildcat  late-1800s 
Mammals Myotis myotis  Greater mouse-eared bat 1985
Mayflies Mayflies Arthroplea congener  1920
Mayflies Heptagenia lonicauda  1933
Mosses Mosses Andreaea mutabilis  Changeable rock-moss 1950s 
Mosses Aulacomnium turgidum   Swollen thread-moss 1878
Mosses Bartramia stricta Upright apple-moss 1864
Mosses Bryum calophyllum  Matted bryum 1983
Mosses Bryum lawersianum
Mosses Bryum turbinatum 1940s 
Mosses Bryum uliginosum  Cernous bryum 1950s 
Mosses Ceratodon conicus  Scarce redshank 1991
Mosses Conostomum tetragonum Helmet-moss  1950s
Mosses Cynodontium polycarpon  1960s
Mosses Dicranum elongatum  Dense fork-moss  late-1800s
Mosses Didymodon icmadophilus  1950s 
Mosses Eurhynchiastrum pulchellum  Elegant feather-moss 1980
Mosses Grimmia anodon  1961
Mosses Gyroweisia reflexa  1938
Mosses Helodium blandowii  1901
Mosses Herzogiella striatella  Muhlenbeck’s feather-moss  1950s
Mosses Kiaeria falcata Sickle-leaved fork-moss  1950s 
Mosses Paludella squarrosa  1916
Mosses Palustriella decipiens   Lesser curled hook-moss 1950s
Mosses Philonotis tomentella  1950s 
Mosses Pohlia proligera  1950s 
Mosses Pseudoleskeella rupestris  1950s 
Mosses Pterygoneurum lamellatum  1970
Mosses Schistidium frigidum  1950s 
Mosses Seligeria diversifolia  1971
Mosses Sphagnum obtusum 1911
Mosses Sphagnum strictum  Pale bog-moss  1950s
Mosses Tetrodontium repandum  Small four-tooth moss 1958
Mosses Weissia mittenii Mitten’s beardless-moss 1970
Moths Acronicta (Hyboma) strigosa  Marsh dagger 1933
Moths Moths Acronicta auricoma  Scarce dagger 1912
Moths Aethes margarotana 1966
Moths Apamea pabulatricula  Union rustic 1935
Moths Apotomis infida  1919
Moths Archips betulana  1881-1900
Moths Arctornis l-nigrum Black V moth 1960
Moths Augasma aeratella  1950s
Moths Borkhausenia minutella 1931
Moths Catocala fraxini  Clifden nonpareil 1964
Moths Celypha doubledayana  c1900
Moths Choristoneura lafauryana  1962
Moths Coleophora albella  1985
Moths Coleophora antennariella  c1930
Moths Coleophora vibicigerella  1980
Moths Colobochyla salicalis  Lesser belle 1977
Moths Conistra erythrocephala  Red-headed chestnut 1932
Moths Cosmopterix schmidiella  1901
Moths Costaconvexa polygrammata    The Many lined 1850s
Moths Cucullia gnaphalii  The Cudweed 1979
Moths Cydia corollana  c1982 
Moths Cydia leguminana  1976
Moths Depressaria depressana  pre 1900 
Moths Depressaria discipunctella  early-1900s 
Moths Dichomeris derasella  1933
Moths Eana argentana  c1986
Moths Emmelia trabealis  Spotted sulphur 1960
Moths Epicallima formosella  1840s
Moths Euhyponomeuta stannella  1976
Moths Eurhodope cirrigerella  Hairy knot-horn 1960
Moths Fagivorina arenaria   Speckled beauty 1898
Moths Hadena irregularis  Viper’s bugloss 1968
Moths Heliodines rosella  1820
Moths Hypercallia citrinalis 1979
Moths Idaea humiliate  Isle of Wight wave 1954
Moths Isturgia limbaria   Frosted yellow 1914
Moths Jodia croceago  Orange upperwing 1983
Moths Laelia coenosa  Reed tussock 1879
Moths Leucodonta bicoloria  White prominent 1880
Moths Lithophane furcifera  The Conformist 1907
Moths Lymantria dispar  Gypsy moth 1907
Moths Lyonetia prunifoliella  1900
Moths Minucia lunaris Lunar double-stripe 1958
Moths Nola aerugula Scarce black arches 1890
Moths Nothris verbascella  1971
Moths Opostega spatulella  1877
Moths Oxyptilus pilosellae 1964
Moths Pachetra sagittigera  Feathered ear 1963
Moths Paranthrene tabaniformis Dusky clearwing 1924
Moths Phtheochroa schreibersiana  1920
Moths Phyllodesma ilicifolia   Small lappet 1965
Moths Pristerognatha penthinana 1914
Moths Pyrausta sanguinalis   Scarce crimson and gold 1935
Moths Scopula immorata  Lewes wave 1958
Moths Scythris fuscoaenea  1932
Moths Stenoptilia pneumonanthes  1961
Moths Stigmella torminalis  1800s
Moths Tenaga nigripunctella  1934
Moths Thetidia smaragdaria maritime  Essex emerald 1991
Moths Tischeria gaunacella  1800s
Moths Trachea atriplicis   Orache 1905
Moths Trigonophora flammea  Flame brocade 1892
Moths Ypsolopha asperella 1886
Sawflies Sawflies Cimbex quadrimaculatus  1800s 
Sawflies Corynis crassicornis  early-1800s 
Sawflies Corynis obscura  early-1800s 
Sawflies Megalodontes cephalotes  early-1800s 
Sawflies Pseudoclavellaria amerinae  1800s 
Sawflies Strongylogaster filicis  1873
Shrimps Shrimps Artemia salina  Brine shrimp 1907
Shrimps Shrimps Mysis relicta 1952/1953
Snails Snails Fruticicola fruticum c1950
Snails Myxas glutinosa  Glutinous snail 1991
Spiders Spiders Dipoena coracina  1913
Spiders Gibbaranea bituberculata  1954
Spiders Hypsosinga heri  1912
Spiders Mastigusa arietina  1926
Stoneflies Stoneflies Brachyptera putata  2000s 
Stoneflies Isogenus nubecula  2000s 
Stoneflies Isoperla obscura 1920
Stoneworts Stoneworts Nitella capillaries  Slimy-fruited stonewort 1959
Stoneworts Nitella gracilis  Slender stonewort 1914
Stoneworts Nitella hyaline  Many-branched stonewort 1915
Stoneworts Tolypella nidifica   Bird’s nest stonewort 1956
True bugs True bugs Trioza proxima 1876
Vascular plants Vascular plants Ajuga genevensis 1967
Vascular plants Arnoseris minima lamb’s succory 1970
Vascular plants Bromus interruptus 1970
Vascular plants Carex davalliana  Davall’s sedge 1831
Vascular plants Carex trinervis Three-nerved sedge 1869
Vascular plants Caucalis platycarpos  small bur parsley
Vascular plants Centaurium scilloides  Perennial centaury  c1967 
Vascular plants Crassula aquatica Pygmyweed  c1945 
Vascular plants Crepis foetida stinking hawksbeard
Vascular plants Cystopteris alpina  Alpine bladder-fern 1911
Vascular plants Cystopteris montana Mountain bladder-fern 1880
Vascular plants Euphorbia peplis  Purple spurge 1951
Vascular plants Euphorbia villosa 1924
Vascular plants Filago gallica narrow leaved cudweed
Vascular plants Galeopsis segetum downy hemp nettle
Vascular plants Najas flexilis  Slender naiad 1982
Vascular plants Otanthus maritimus Cottonweed 1936
Vascular plants Polygonatum verticillatum Whorled Solomon’s–seal 1866
Vascular plants Saxifraga rosacea 1960
Vascular plants Scheuchzeria palustris  Rannoch rush c1900
Vascular plants Senecio eboracensis  York groundsel 2000
Vascular plants Spiranthes aestivalis  Summer lady’s-tresses  1950s
Vascular plants Spiranthes romanzoffiana  Irish lady’s-tresses  1990s 
Vascular plants Tephroseris palustris Marsh fleawort 1947
Wasps Wasps Arachnospila rufa  1938
Wasps Dinetus pictus  1880
Wasps Hedychrum rutlians  1899
Wasps Lestica clypeata  1853
Wasps Mellinus crabroneus 1952
Wasps Odynerus reniformis 1922
Wasps Orussus abietinus  c1820
Wasps Priocnemis propinqua  1899
Wasps Psen ater  1850
Wasps Tachysphex obscuripennis  1882
Water beetles Water beetles Graphoderus bilineatus  1906
Water beetles Gyrinus natator 1921
Water beetles Ochthebius aeneus  1913
Water beetles Rhantus aberratus  1904
Water beetles Spercheus emarginatus  1956
See also  NASA reveals regions on moon that are potential landing targets for the 2025 Artemis III mission



Source link

By californianews_gkdgq8

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

Related Posts